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foreign development status of wear-resistant material
current international and wear-resistant materials and its application technology is facing a new breakthrough, such as superconducting materials, microelectronic materials, photonic materials, information materials, energy conversion and energy storage materials, eco-materials, biomedical materials and material molecules, atoms the design is in rapid development, and the development of wear-resistant material technology is becoming an important means of some developed countries to strengthen their economic and military superiority.
nbti, nb3sn superconducting materials of practical superconducting materials to achieve commercialization and application in magnetic resonance body imaging (nmri), superconducting magnets and large-scale accelerator magnet; squid as a superconductor weak application of played an important role in a model in the weak electromagnetic signal measurement sensitivity can not be achieved by any other non-superconducting device. however, since the critical temperature of the conventional low-temperature superconductors is too low, it is necessary to use expensive and complicated system of liquid helium (4.2k), and thus severely limits the development of the low-temperature superconducting applications. the emergence of high-temperature oxide superconductors wear-resistant materials, breaking temperature barriers, superconducting applications from liquid helium temperature (4.2k) to the temperature zone of liquid nitrogen (77k). compared with liquid helium, liquid nitrogen is a very economical refrigerant, and has a high heat capacity, and has brought great convenience to engineering applications. in addition, the high-temperature superconductors have very high upper critical field h c2 (4k)> 50t], can be used to generate the strong magnetic field of 20t or more, this is just to overcome the inadequacies of the conventional low-temperature superconducting materials. because of these intrinsic characteristics of tc, hc2 bring great potential in economic and technical ability to attract a large number of scientists using the most advanced technology and equipment, high-tc superconducting mechanism, the physical characteristics of the material, chemical the nature of the synthesis process and microstructure were extensive and in-depth research. high-temperature oxide superconductors is very complex, multi-system, important issues encountered in the course of the study, involving a variety of fields, these areas of condensed matter physics, crystal chemistry, technology and micro-structure analysis. the field of materials science technologies and means, such as amorphous technology, nano powder technology, magneto-optical technology, tunneling microscopy and field ion microscopy techniques are used to study the high-temperature superconductors, many of which involve the forefront of materials science. the high-temperature superconducting materials research has made important progress in the single crystal thin film material, wire, and applications. wear-resistant materials
biomedical material wear-resistant materials
has entered a new stage of rapid development as an important part of high-tech bio-medical materials, its market sales are increasing a rate of 16% per annum, is expected within 20 years, the share of biomedical materials will catch up with the drug market, become a pillar industry. bioactive ceramics has become the the medical the bioceramics main direction; biodegradable polymer material is an important direction of medical polymer materials; the medical biomaterials research focus is strengthening and toughening biological composites and functional biocomposite with treatment the function ha biocomposites very active.
energy material wear-resistant materials
the solar cell materials research and development of new energy materials hotspot ibm company developed the multi-layer composite solar cell, conversion rates up to 40%. u.s. department of energy in about 50% of all funding for hydrogen research for hydrogen storage technology. the solid oxide fuel cell research is very active, the key is the battery material, such as the solid electrolyte film and the cathode material of the battery, as well as the proton exchange membrane type fuel cell using organic protonic exchange membrane, are the focus of current research.
eco-materials wear-resistant material
eco-materials is a new area that formed in the 1990s in the international high-tech new material, very active in research and development in japan, the u.s., germany and other developed countries, the main research directions: (1) directly facing environmental issues materials technology, for example, bio-degradable materials technology, co 2
gas curing technology, sox, nox catalytic converter technology, waste recycling technology, environmental pollution to repair processing technology, materials preparation, clean technology, and save resources, energy-saving technologies; ② develop methods to enable sustainable economic development, environmental coordination of material, such as biomimetic materials, environmental protection materials, freon, asbestos and other harmful substances, alternative materials, new green materials; ③ materials life cycle assessment. wear-resistant materials
smart materials is the second natural materials, synthetic polymer material, the fourth generation of the material after the artificial design materials, is one of the important direction of development of the modern high-tech new material, will support the development of future high-tech, in the traditional sense wearable the boundaries between the material and structural material gradually disappear, the structure and function of the functional diversification. scientists predict the development and large-scale applications of smart materials will lead to a major revolution in materials science. abroad made a lot of technological breakthroughs in the research and development of smart materials, such as british aerospace wire sensor for strain and temperature on the test aircraft skin; british developed a rapid response of shape memory alloys, life with millions of times circulation, and high output power, and brake it, reaction time, and only 10 minutes; drive components in piezoelectric materials, magnetostrictive materials, conductive polymer materials, electrorheological fluids and magnetorheological fluid intelligence material material to obtain a large number of innovations in aviation.